Afghanistan is situated in South-Central Asia and the country is mountainous and landlocked. Afghanistan is bordered by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China and Pakistan. The evidence of human inhabitation is dated back to 50,000 BCE. The geostrategic location of the country makes it as a connecting link between Middle East and Central Asia as well as the Indian subcontinent. The country had gone through several military attacks mainly by Genghis Khan, Alexander the Great and Chandragupta Maurya. Afghanistan was the base of local dynasties like Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Saffarids, Kushans, Mughals, Timurids and Greco-Bactrians and several others also established empires in the country.
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. The modern history of politics in Afghanistan has started during 18th century when Hotaki dynasty came into power in 1709 at Kandahar. In 1776, the capital of the country was shifted to Kabul from Kandahar. The country experienced a state of war continuously from the late 1970s which includes Soviet invasion, military intervention of Pakistani supported by Taliban and US-led invasion to overpower Taliban government. The country is headed at present by Karzai administration and the president of the nation is Hamid Karzai since 2001. Afghanistan is the member of SAARC, ECO and OIC.
The economy of the country has improved a lot due to the incoming of several dollars of assistance and money from expats. The economy of Afghanistan mainly depends up on agriculture and considered as the backbone of the country’s economy because more than 75% people are working in this industry. The population of the country is about 35 million, but whether the refugees in Iran and Pakistan are counted or not is unknown. Afghanistan consists of multiethnic people, but the exact figures of different ethnic groups are not available as there has been no systematic census held in the country for decades.
The official languages of the country are Dari Persian and Pashto. The mother tongue of different ethnic groups is Persian which includes Tajiks, Aimak, Kizilbash and Hazara. The mother tongue of Pashtuns is Pashto and other languages used in the country are Pashayi, Nuristani, Balochi, Arabic, Uzbek and Turkmen. About 99% of the Afghans are Muslims and among them 80-85% are Sunnis, 15-19% are Shi’as and 1% is other Muslims. There are several tourist destinations in Afghanistan which includes sightseeing spots, historical spots and other places worth seeing. The most sought after destination of Afghanistan is Kabul which one among the popular cities of the country.
The attractions in Kabul includes tomb of Emperor Babur, the Women Park, Afghan National Museum, Kabul Zoo and many more. Balkh is a small town with historical significance as it was the center of Bactrian Empire. Some of the tourist destinations of Balkh are Shrine of Khoja Abu Nasar Parsa, ruins of tiled mosque, central park and Dargah of Rabia Balkhi. Bamiyan is another famous tourist destination where the tourists are coming to see Giant Buddha Statue. Other tourist attractions of Bamiyan are destroyed Buddha statues, Shahe-e Zohak fort and Shahr-e Gholghola fort.