New Caledonia is situated in Southwest Pacific Ocean in Melanesia’s sub region. New Caledonia consists of Loyalty Island which is the main island and many small islands. New Caledonia is a dependent territory of France. Noumea is the capital of New Caledonia and it is also the largest city of the island. The humans settled in the island around 3,000 years back. Lapita is the group of diverse people settled in Melanesian archipelagos. New Caledonia was discovered by Europeans at the end of 18th century and famous British explorer Sir James Cook named it New Caledonia in the year 1774.
France established the territory in the 1854 and the French Republic is in charge of defense, public order, treasury, justice and foreign affairs. The inhabitants of the islands are considered as French Citizens who have French passport and have the right to vote in presidential and legislative French elections. Two deputies represent New Caledonia in French National Assembly. Among the two deputies, one represents the commune of Noumea, L’lle-des-Pins and Loyalty Islands Province and another one represents the remaining part of the New Caledonia. One senator also represents the island in French Senate. High Commissioner of the Republic represents the French central state in the island.
The economy of New Caledonia depends on minerals and critical elements for industry which is available in the soil of the island. Mining and tourism also play a major role in the economy of the islands. The population of the island is 280,000. About 44.6% of the people are indigenous community of Melanesian Kanak and remaining people consists of Europeans, Polynesians, Indonesians, Vietnamese, Ni-Vanuatu and other groups such as south Asians, Tamils, Berbers, Chinese, Fijians, Japanese, West Indian and Arabs. The official language of the island is French and there are 33 spoken Austronesian languages.
New Caledonia is a perfect tourist destination with several beaches suitable for sport activities. Noumea which is the capital of New Caledonia is a great place with several tourist spots and activities. You can enjoy windsurfing at Anse Vata, Tenia and Poe and Cote Blanche in Noumea. Boats are available for rent in order to enjoy fishing in the islands. Some of the fishing destinations are Yate Lake, lagoon of Ouvea Island and Loyalty Islands where you can go for salt-water fishing, sport fishing and deep-sea fishing. Enjoy snorkeling near the shipwrecks at Noumea, Tenia Horn, Amedee Lighthouse Reserve, llot Maitre and La Diepoise.
Mount Koghi is a place famous for hiking where you will get guides who speak French or English. Horse riding excursions across the mountain range is famous as it goes through Lafoa, Noumea, Dumber and Kone. Camping at the mountains is also famous in this region. Boating is popular in lle des Pins and boats with glass bottoms will go through coral reefs. Whale watching is also popular in the islands. Tjibaou Cultural Center of Noumea consists of exhibitions, archives and artifacts. The Mangrove, barrier reef and lagoon of New Caledonia are the three sites among the six listed by UNESCO as the World Heritage Sites.