Taiwan was known as Formosa which means beautiful island. Taiwan is located in East Asia and about 99% of the territory consists of China. So, Taiwan is also referred as the common name of China. Taiwan is surrounded by Japan, East China Sea, Ryukyu Islands and Batanese Islands. The main island Taiwan is area of 394 km in length and a width of 144km. Other small islands and islets included in Taiwan are Green Island, Orchid Island, Diaoyutai Islands and Pescadores that have been under the control of Japan from 1970s. Taiwan was surrendered to Japan Empire by Qing Empire after the First Sino-Japanese War fought in the year 1895.
After World War II China captured the country from Japan. The control of Taiwan is still disputed as China has been claiming the control of Taiwan. The evidence of first settlers dated back to 30,000 years ago. The first settlers of the country are different from current groups genetically. Taiwanese aborigines came to the country about 4,000 years back. The sudden industrialization and quick growth of economy of Taiwan after the World War II is considered as a miracle and known as the “Taiwan Miracle” or “Taiwan Economic Miracle”.
The estimated population of Taiwan is 23 million and from them, 98% of the people are of Han Chinese ethnicity and remaining 2% is of Taiwanese aborigines which have 13 groups. The official language of Taiwan is Mandarin. Taiwanese is also spoken by majority of people. Other languages are Hakka language and English. More than 93% of the people are following the mixture of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and ancient polytheistic Chinese religion. About 4.5 % of the people follow Christianity that includes Catholics, Protestants, Latter-day Saints and other denominations. About 2.5% of the population is following Islam.
Taiwan has many tourist destinations and preferred by tourists because of the high class tourist destination, restaurants, lodgings and other activities. Taipei, the capital of the country is the largest city which serves both as governmental and financial center. Taipei 101 building is the tallest building with several corporate offices, restaurants and a shopping mall. Some of the tourist destinations of Taipei are Presidential office building, Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall, National Museum of History, Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines and National Palace museum.
There are several scenic destinations worth visiting in Taiwan like Yushan National Park, Yushan Mountain, Sun Moon Lake, Kenting National Park, Hsitou bamboo forest and Taroko Gorge. Alishan misty forests are situated towards the center of the island. Hsinchu Science Park has several hi-tech companies located in Hsinchu city. Tainan is another tourist destination popular for several historical buildings and mouthwatering food. Chihkan Tower of Tainan is a site of 17th century. You can also find 400 years old Matsu temple. Other tourist spots at Tainan are Guanzi Hill, Chigu Salt Mountain and Anping Fort. You can also find picturesque farms, fishing villages, fine beaches, rugged coastlines, coral reefs and ancient temple in Taiwan. Penghu Island is a scenic area with 90 islets distributed around Taiwan Strait. Green Island and Orchid Island of Taiwan offer scuba diving and whale watching.