Peru is situated in South America and bordered by Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile and Pacific Ocean. Peru was the home of Norte Chico civilizations which the oldest civilization of the world. Spain conquered Peru in 16th century and placed the country under the Viceroyalty. Peru got independence in the year 1821. After independence, Peru has experienced fiscal crisis and political unrest and also the economic growth and stability. Peru is a democratic republic. The country is mainly divided into three geographical regions such as arid plains, mountainous regions and tropical forests.
The government of Peru is elected directly and there is compulsory voting for all the citizens of the country from the age of 18 to 70. Executive power is vested on the government and the legislative power is exercised by both Congress and the government. Judiciary of Peru is independent from executive and legislative powers. The economy of Peru is the fast growing in Americas. Economy of Peru is market-oriented and is 42nd largest economy of the world.
Economy of the country mainly depends on exports and the main exports of Peru are gold, copper, zinc, fish meal and textiles. Peru has more than 29.5 million inhabitants and multiethnic with combination of various groups. In South America, the country is fourth populous one. Most of the population is Christians. Majority of the people are living in urban areas. The official language of the country is Spanish. Other languages spoken in the country are many indigenous languages and foreign languages. Literacy rate of Peru is 92.9% as of 2007. Free and compulsory primary and secondary education are provided in public schools.
Arequipa which also called as White City is famous for the elegant colonial homes, monasteries and churches that are constructed with white volcanic stone. Heart of the city is listed as the World Heritage Site by UNESCO. You can also visit Colca Valley, Colca Canyon, Meija Lagoons, Valley of Volcanoes and natural area such as Aguada Blanca and Salinas in Arequipa. You can find archaeological discoveries like The Lord of Sican situated in Batan Grande, The Lord of Sipan located in Huaca Rajada and pyramids of Tucume in Chiclayo. Chiclayo also houses Sican National Museum and Museo de Tumbas Reales de Sipan.
Cuzco was the capital of Inca Empire where you can find the ruins of Inca Empire. Machu Picchu of Cuzco has historical value and listed as the World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Tourists can also enjoy the Andean snow-capped summits, landscapes and blue lagoons in Cordillera Blanca. In Cordillera Blanca, you can also enjoy the beauty of Huascaran National Park. Iquito is a must see place for nature lovers and the place is famous for biodiversity with the presence of Amazon forests. Lima, capital of Peru is a metropolitan city with magnificent colonial buildings, museums, archaeological locations and casinos.